According to the World Health Organization, obesity is one of the most serious health problems today. By 2025, it is estimated that 2.3 billion adults worldwide will be overweight and 700 million people will be obese. In Brazil, this chronic disease has increased by 72% in the last thirteen years, from 11.8% in 2006 to 20.3% in 2019. Specialists answer questions about the pathology and provide guidance on the importance and process of healthy weight loss.
Obesity is a multifactorial condition, it is not like other genetic conditions where there is a gene, a disease. There are several genes that work together with environmental factors, lifestyle of the person for obesity, explains geneticist Dr. Gaius Bruzaca.
Some metabolic diseases related to obesity are type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension, it also increases triglyceride levels in the blood, causes a reduction in HDL cholesterol, the good cholesterol, related to protection against cardiovascular diseases, elucidates endocrinologist Dr. Ikaro Breder.
Evidence shows that with the increase in obesity, there was an increase in cardiovascular complications such as heart attack, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure, arrhythmia and heart failure. Obesity generates systemic inflammation, it ends up anticipating the genetics for disease and even developing these serious diseases, highlights cardiologist Dr. Alessandra Gazola.
There are properly some respiratory diseases of obesity and others that can be aggravated. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is a condition of marked worsening of breathing that is characteristic of obesity, it does not require another pre-existing lung problem for it to occur. Other lung diseases can also be made worse by obesity, asthma being the prime example. Night breathing can also be affected due to apnea, obesity is one of the main risk factors, explains pulmonologist Dr. John Carlos de Jesus.
Although, until a few years ago, it was considered a disease that only occurred in adults, obesity has been increasingly common in children and adolescents. Health damage includes, in addition to diabetes and high blood pressure, a poor quality of life, with the obese patient having a tendency to low self-esteem and depression, points out pediatrician Dr. Roberta Esteves.
Women who have excess body fat produce more estrogen, its increase can make conception difficult due to endometrial alteration. Other obesity-related problems, such as diabetes and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, also make it difficult for women to get pregnant. In men, the level of testosterone is reduced and the level of estradiol increases, which puts sperm production at risk, since overweight people have a higher rate of DNA fragmentation in the sperm, generating a failure in fertilization, explains Dr. Alessandro Schuffner, specialist in human reproduction.
One of the systems most affected by obesity is the locomotor system, which suffers from the overload of excess weight associated with the inflammatory process that adipose tissue causes throughout the body. Muscle weakness causes joints to become unstable, increasing wear and tear and becoming a predisposition for some types of diseases such as spinal disc herniations, says orthopedist Dr. Stefano Monteiro.
Along with obesity come diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes and sleep apnea. High cholesterol and high blood pressure can cause retinal vessel obstruction (vein and artery occlusion) causing low vision. Decompensated diabetes can cause diabetic retinopathy, complicating it with hemorrhage, retinal detachment and even blindness. Some studies show that sleep apnea may be a risk factor for glaucoma, exemplifies ophthalmologist Dr. Daniel Kamlot.
Some aesthetic complaints are usually related to obesity. The main one is the double chin, in this region it is common to accumulate fat, losing the definition of the facial contour. Dark spots between the thighs, groin, armpits and neck may be related to increased skin friction in these regions, as well as insulin resistance that may be associated with obesity. Cellulite is also another frequent complaint, in addition to the stretch marks that usually appear if weight gain occurs in a short period of time, explains dermatologist Dr. Gabriela Bernhard.
It is necessary to combine guidelines for the reduction of nutritional deficiencies such as vitamins, minerals and proteins, which occur when the consumption of processed food products is more frequent in the food routine than fruits, vegetables, legumes and animal proteins such as eggs, cheeses and fresh meats. . It is also necessary to be aware of the exaggerated amounts of sugar and refined carbohydrates in the diet, which end up increasing overweight and the chronic inflammatory process, leading to obesity, explains nutritionist Dr. Marcia Tornavoi.
The regular practice of physical activities is one of the most important pillars of weight loss due to its direct and indirect effects. The direct effect is the caloric expenditure of the activity itself, which is necessary in the weight loss process. Indirectly, adequate physical activity promotes an improvement in the profile and balance of neurotransmitters and hormones, related to metabolic improvement, well-being and consequent healthier food choices, in addition to increased satiety, details sports doctor Dr. Lucas Caseri.
Obesity brings several comorbidities, in addition to the direct link with several types of cancers, especially breast cancer and various cancers of the digestive system. The treatment of obesity goes far beyond the aesthetic issue, but directly linked to health and the reduction of the risk of these serious diseases, when conventional treatment does not bring the desired result, bariatric surgery is indicated for body weight reduction and control of obesity. associated pathologies, recommends general surgeon Dr. Fabio Strauss.
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